One need only look to the Declaration of Sentiments adopted by the women in attendance at the Seneca Falls Convention in August 1848 to begin to appreciate how far women in the United States still are from reaching equality in a host of arenas, many of which are dependent on political or legal equality. Although women were granted the franchise in 1920 after decades of struggle, it is only in the past few decades that women have become a political force – at least at the ballot box. Women not only vote more than men, but unmarried women and women of color are much more likely to vote for Democratic candidates. In fact, women were key voters in the successful elections of Presidents Clinton and Obama.
Linda Basch: From your perspective, what is the unfinished work of women’s political equality?
Tonni Brodber: In the English-speaking Caribbean women’s participation in political leadership ranges from a high of 13% in Jamaica to a low of 0% in Belize, with many countries like St. Kitts and Nevis and St Lucia hovering at 6.7% and at 5.6% respectively. In the face of such paltry numbers, it almost pains me to say that it is my belief that the unfuinished work of women’s political equality is the lack of quality and diversity.
The University of Michigan Center for the Education of Women (CEW) advances the personal, educational, career, professional and leadership potential of women. The services, programs, applied research, and action initiatives conducted by CEW promote inclusiveness and equity within the University, across the state and throughout the nation.
Founded in 1964, the Center for the Education of Women, within the University of Michigan, was one of the nation's first comprehensive, university-based centers focused on women. Designed to serve the needs of women students as well as women returning to school or work, CEW (then known as the Center for the Continuing Education of Women) was founded with a three part mission of service, advocacy, and research. CEW maintains that mission today, serving University students, staff and faculty, community members, women and men, facing educational, employment or other life issues.
Center researchers are currently analyzing the results of the Faculty Work-Life Study, a joint project of the Center for the Education of Women and the UM Center for Research on Learning and Teaching. The survey of UM faculty included questions about climate, workload, sources of satisfaction and stress, and incorporate AAUDI questions for comparison to similar institutions. This project also provides comparison to the 1998 FWLS.
Contingent Faculty in a Tenure Track World - CEW researchers held focus groups with full- and part-time non-tenure track (NTT) faculty at twelve research universities across the country. In total, we conducted 24 ninety-minute focus groups with a total of 343 full- and part-time NTT faculty. A report of the project is available and a video based on the project explores the responses of focus group members. The project was funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
The National Clearinghouse on Academic Worklife (www.academicworklife.org) combines into a single website information resources and community discussions to support those who study or participate in academic work. Up to date articles and policy examples are available on topics ranging from family-friendly benefits, tenure attainment, and faculty satisfaction to policy development, productivity, and demographics. An email newsletter is also available free to subscribers. This clearinghouse was developed through a grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
The Dual Career Ladder Project, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, resulted in several publications based on the findings of our institutional survey of U.S. institutions of higher education. highlighting the numbers, working conditions and perceived contributions of non tenure track faculty. These are available on the CEW website.
CEW’s Advanced Leadership Program offers middle management University of Michigan staff, recommended by their supervisors, an eight-month skill development workshop series and accompanying change management project. This program has been offered annually for nearly 10 years.
Focus on Leadership, addresses the need for leadership development and training for staff not yet in key middle-management positions or not yet ready for the more extensive Advanced Leadership Program. Offered to approximately 30 individuals annually, this program offers participants an introduction to leadership concepts while it assists participants in developing an identity as a potential leader.
Emerging Leaders Iniative CEW is currently developing an innovative nine-month program for emerging leaders (those with less than 6 years in their career fields) over the course of two years. The program will focus on women from a specific Michigan urban region, combining those from the private and the non-profit sectors. The program combines in-person sessions, career coaching by senior leaders, and ongoing support and learning using web 2.0 tools including social media and online learning.
CEW offers about 50 programs each term, covering topics such as careers, career change and job searching, work-life balance, leadership development, and focused programs for graduate students and post-docs. In addition, CEW brings special events and speakers to the campus and community.
In addition, CEW leads three support networks for University of Michigan women: Women of Color in the Academy Project and Junior Women Faculty Network for women faculty and the Women of Color Task Force for women staff. These networks offer support, mentoring, and learning opportunities for participants. The Task Force delivers a campus-wide career conference annually, with about 550 participants.
CEW provides free counseling to students, faculty and staff of the University as well as to women and men in the community. Each year over 1,000 adults are seen by CEW’s professional counselors.
Women at the University of Michigan: A Statistical Report on the Status of Women Students, Staff and Faculty on the Ann Arbor Campus, compiled by staff from CEW, Human Resource Records and Information Services, and the Office of Budget and Planning. (Replaced by 2010 Report)
“Work/family policies in higher education: Survey data and case studies of policy implementation" by Carol S. Hollenshead, Beth Sullivan, Gilia C. Smith, Louise August, and Susan Hamilton is a chapter of The Challenge of Balancing Faculty Careers and Family Work, New Directions in Higher Education no. 130, 2005, 41-65.
The Visiting Scholar Program is an opportunity for scholars to pursue research projects relevant to women using the vast resources available through the Center for the Education of Women (CEW) and the University of Michigan. Scholars must hold a Ph.D. or equivalent degree. A scholar's stay at the Center can range from one to twelve months, as appropriate to the scholar's research needs. Visiting Scholars prepare a working paper based upon their research, which is published as part of the Center's series of occasional papers.
Robin Wright Graduate Fellowship
The Center for the Education of Women announces the Robin Wright Graduate Fellowship with a grant of up to $3,200. The fund will support research by a graduate student from the Islamic World or Africa matriculating in the Rackham Graduate School.
The work of the Center for Gender in Organizations (CGO), an academic research institute, serves as a fundamental call to action. Our research and experience repeatedly demonstrate that gender equity and diversity greatly improve work practice and overall organizational effectiveness.
Gender is an organizational issue. Our research emphatically shows that businesses benefit when they view gender equity as a strategic imperative and a source of competitive advantage.
The Center for Gender in Organizations (CGO) takes a unique approach to addressing gender and diversity issues in the workplace. Rather than seeing gender as a problem that individual women and men confront at work, we believe gender is deeply embedded in an organization's culture and practices. It is at this level of analysis that the most significant research is undertaken and from which real change emerges.
Understanding leadership similarities and differences of women and men as well as their resulting impact on organizations is a linchpin of the Center for Gender in Organizations (CGO) research. In addition to studying leadership issues, we also regularly examine the progress women have made in achieving leadership positions in varied organizations to understand the lessons learned and consider, as well, the contributions made by role models and mentors.
CGO uses a "complexity lens" to understand gender and diversity. Through this lens, differences are seen as a simultaneous process of identity and institutional practices. The new insight gained through the use of this lens has led CGO to the development of a theory of simultaneity to strengthen diversity efforts. Simply stated, the theory works with the reality that all people have multiple identities, all of which are present "at the table" in any interaction and any of which may be more or less salient in any particular situation.
Globalization research focuses on the growing interconnectedness of workforces, stemming from trends such as outsourcing, immigration and technological change. The Center for Gender in Organizations (CGO) seeks to understand the impact of multiple cultures and identities on work practices and global workforce productivity and to help ensure that traditional white, North American standards are not automatically applied to the rest of the world.
CGO Commentaries are articles adapted from talks or papers delivered by our faculty affiliates and other distinguished scholars and practitioners. They highlight current and emerging topics in gender equity, diversity and organizational studies.
Legal Momentum is the nation's oldest legal defense and education fund dedicated to advancing the rights of all women and girls. For more than 40 years, Legal Momentum has made historic contributions through litigation and public policy advocacy to advance economic and personal security for women. Our current programmatic work is focused on five strategic goals: increasing pathways into quality employment opportunities, protecting workplace rights of vulnerable populations, strengthening the safety net, expanding rights, justice, and services for victims of violence, and promoting gender equity and challenging gender bias.
Women and Poverty: The poverty rate for adult women has been substantially higher than for adult men in every year since official poverty measurement began. Legal Momentum is proposing policy solutions that will alleviate women and children’s poverty.
Women face violence at home, on the street, and in the workplace. Notwithstanding one of Legal Momentum’s signature achievements – passage of the Violence Against Women Act—supportive services, rights and protective measures for victims remain inadequate.
Nearly 50 years after sex discrimination in employment was prohibited, women continue to be paid less, face sexual harassment, and confront barriers to hiring and promotion. These challenges are severe for women in “non-traditional” jobs. Legal Momentum works to protect the workplace rights of women, especially vulnerable populations.
Legal Momentum has expertise and resources across a wide range of areas related to discrimination, gender equity, and gender bias. Ranging from sexual and reproductive rights and teen dating violence to gender bias in the courts, Legal Momentum continues to champion the rights of women and girls and to work to eradicate harmful stereotypes and policies shaped by bias while promoting policies and practices that reflect the realities of women’s lives, and advancing their rights under the law.
Women continue to hold jobs with lower salaries and fewer benefits. They face barriers to employment in job sectors from which they have long been excluded. Job training programs for both adults and students too often reinforce these trends, failing to provide women and girls with competitive skills and a path into non-traditional, well-compensated jobs.
Legal interns assist in developing litigation with legal research, prospective client interviews, drafting pleadings, and other aspects of litigation, and develop public education and policy advocacy materials on a range of women's rights legal issues. Positions are available in our New York City and Washington, D.C. offices.
Legal Momentum accepts applications from undergraduate (non-legal) students, in New York City and Washington D.C., for internship positions in public policy and advocacy, communications and marketing, accounting, development, and other non-profit management areas. Positions are generally unpaid and students are expected to have funding from their schools, or to be enrolled in a course which awards academic credit for the internship experience. Internship applications are accepted throughout the year for at least one-semester of service.
The name Feminist Majority Foundation is a consciousness-raiser, inspired by a Newsweek/Gallup public opinion poll that showed the majority of women (56%) in the United States self-identified as feminists. Most polls since then reveal that this majority continues with over two-thirds of young women self-identifying as feminists. Most men, especially young men, view themselves as supporters of the women's rights movement.
The Feminist Majority Foundation (FMF), which was founded in 1987, is a cutting edge organization dedicated to women's equality, reproductive health, and non-violence. In all spheres, FMF utilizes research and action to empower women economically, socially, and politically. Our organization believes that feminists - both women and men, girls and boys - are the majority, but this majority must be empowered.
Abortion is a necessity for millions of women worldwide, for their health, for their wellbeing, for their dreams of a better tomorrow. The reality is that a woman will seek an abortion—legal or otherwise—almost instinctively and in self defense. A woman will do this when an unwanted pregnancy presents an excessive strain on her or her family’s physical, emotional or economic resources. Throughout the ages, courageous women have made it their right and indeed their responsibility. In a civilized society we owe women the legal right to make their decision safely.
Contraceptives—birth control methods—prevent pregnancy. All women and men have a right to safe, effective, affordable and accessible contraception. Contraception reduces the number of unintended pregnancies and the need for abortion; it’s an essential and basic preventive health service globally.
The more contraceptive options a society has, along with easy access and the education to use them, the less a society has to depend upon abortion. In the United States, however, there are fewer contraceptive options than in other developed nations, access is far more complicated, and cost is prohibitive for far too many. In developed countries like The Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden—where effective contraceptive choices are easily accessible and inexpensive or free—women have lower abortion rates compared to the United States.
Campaign Objectives: -Increase and monitor the provision of emergency and reconstruction assistance to women and girls -Support Afghan women-led non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the Afghan Ministry for Women's Affairs, and the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission -Increase security and safety for Afghan people, especially women and girls -Promote women's rights, healthcare, and education
The Feminist Majority Foundation played a critical and decisive role in helping assure mifepristone's U.S. approval for safe and effective early medical abortion. In addition to fighting to expand women's safe abortion option, for more than a decade, the FMF has also been advocating for non-abortion clinical trials using mifepristone to treat cancers and other life-threatening conditions that solely or disproportionately affect women.
The Feminist Majority Foundation (FMF) started the Campus Program to inform young feminists about the very real threats to abortion access, women’s rights, affirmative action, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights posed by right-wing extremists. FMF works with students on college campuses to effect change at the grassroots, national, and global levels. The Campus Program is built upon FMF’s philosophy that the most effective activism is informed activism, or study to action. Our program provides progressive students with opportunities to learn about timely feminist issues, develop their leadership and organizing skills, and connect with the larger pro-choice and feminist movements
Title IX is most well-known for increasing women's participation in sports. In 1971, only 294,015 girls participated in high school athletics. According to the U.S. Department of Education, today, over 2.7 million girls participate in high school athletics, an 847 percent increase. However, males are still the majority of high school and college athletes.
Girls Learn International (GLI) educates and energizes U.S. students in the global movement for girls’ access to education. GLI pairs Chapters in U.S. middle schools and high schools with Partner Schools in countries where girls still lag behind boys in access to education and where girls are far less likely than boys to stay in school past the primary grades. The GLI Program supports the empowerment of U.S. students as they discover that through their own creative initiatives, dedication, and passionate leadership, they can create real solutions that address the obstacles facing girls and women here around the world. Student-to-student, and student-to-parent, GLI is building a movement of informed advocates for universal girls’ education and a new generation of leaders and activists for social change.
The Feminist Majority Foundation is committed to empowering women and girls around the world. Join us as we advocate for Afghan women and girls, women in Iran, increased funding for global sexual reproductive health and rights, the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), known as The Women's Treaty, and the worldwide elimination of violence against women.
Ms. was the first U.S. magazine to feature prominent American women demanding the repeal of laws that criminalized abortion, the first to explain and advocate for the ERA, to rate presidential candidates on women's issues, to put domestic violence and sexual harassment on the cover of a women's magazine, to feature feminist protest of pornography, to commission and feature a national study on date rape, and to blow the whistle on the undue influence of advertising on magazine journalism.
A program of the Feminist Majority Foundation, the National Center for Women & Policing (NCWP), promotes increasing the numbers of women at all ranks of law enforcement as a strategy to improve police response to violence against women, reduce police brutality and excessive force, and strengthen community policing reforms.
The National Clinic Access Project (NCAP) assists independent clinics and physicians as well as affiliated clinics, both non-profit clinics as well as for-profit. NCAP began as the National Clinic Defense Project in 1989 by mobilizing 10,000 pro-choice volunteers in response to Operation Rescue's threat to turn Los Angeles into the first "abortion-free city."
Rock for Choice was founded by L7 in the fall of 1991 to mobilize the music community to protect abortion rights and women's health clinics. After meeting with the Feminist Majority, which heads the largest clinic access Project in the country, L7 organized the first Rock for Choice concert at the Palace in Los Angeles on October 21, 1991. This historic concert featured Nirvana, Hole and Sister Double Happiness.
Women make up 90 percent of sweatshop laborers. The majority of these women are between the ages of 15 and 22. Companies that use sweatshop labor to increase their own profit margins are taking advantage of predominantly young women.
The Feminist Chronicles,written by Toni Carabillo, Judith Meuli, and June Bundy Csida, provides the most thorough history to date of the women's movement and the advancements women have made in the U.S. from 1953 to 1993.
Including comprehensive statistics and analysis on clinic violence nationwide, the Annual Clinic Violence survey is the foremost source on threats and violence against reproductive health clinics, and law enforcement response.
In order to further clinics’ and communities’ ability to provide safe abortion access, the Feminist Majority Foundation and NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund have updated this booklet, first published in 1996.
The creation of this 2007 Handbook has been a major activity of General Handbook Editor, Dr. Sue Klein, Director of the Feminist Majority Foundation Education Equity Program. This Handbook is especially valuable to the increased numbers of researchers, educators and educational activists interested in gender equity and their equity allies at all educational levels. In addition to schools of education, it is a valuable reference book for journalists, women's and gender studies faculty and students, and for professional organizations concerned with educational equity
Feminist Majority Foundation research confirmed widespread non-compliance with Title IX and the U.S. Constitution protections against sex discrimination in all but four states which instituted deliberate single-sex education in over 1,000 public K-12 schools during 2007-10. Key recommendations include rescinding the 2006 ED Title IX regulations which weakened safeguards against sex discriminatory sex segregation and empowering Title IX coordinators to identify and help stop this increased sex discrimination.
Feminist Majority's in-depth analysis of the gender gap and how it affected the controversial 2000 presidential election, as well as key races and feminist victories in Congress and statewide elections.
FMF led the successful 12-year campaign for the approval of mifepristone in the United States. Learn about the campaign, the history of the struggle for mifepristone access, and current campaigns to ensure broad access to this early abortion pill.
The Women’s Studies Research Center (WSRC) at Brandeis University is happy to celebrate its 10 Year Anniversary in 2012! We have a fantastic new video showcasing our Scholars and their work over this past decade, created by Scholar Ornit Barkai.
The WSRC is an innovative, interdisciplinary research facility of scholars, students and faculty who study gender issues and women's lives.
The Arts Program at the Women's Studies Research Center is home to the Kniznick Gallery (Est. 2001). The Kniznick Gallery is committed to feminist exhibitions of artistic excellence that reflect the activities of the Women's Studies Research Center Scholars and engage communities within and beyond Brandeis University. The art on display is a vehicle through which the Center seeks to promote dialogue about important issues and address the ever-changing challenges related to women and gender.
The National Initiative on Gender, Culture and Leadership in Medicine known as “C - Change” (for culture - change) engages medical schools in action research with Brandeis University to facilitate culture change so that all faculty members can contribute fully. C - Change has generated substantial qualitative and quantitative data on the culture of academic medicine. These data have been used by the medical schools partnering in the C - Change Learning Action Network, and by additional schools, and have contributed to innovations and culture change initiatives to realize the potential of all faculty.
Founded and directed by WSRC Scholar Paula Doress-Worters, the Ernestine Rose Society works to revive the legacy of "America's first feminist leader." Recognizing Ernestine Rose's pioneering role in the first wave of feminism, the society is committed to raising awareness about Ernestine, who did so much to promote women's rights in the United States and internationally.
Housed at the WSRC and founded in 1997 at Brandeis University, HBI is the world's first university-based research institute devoted to the study of Jews and gender. HBI's mission is to develop fresh ways of thinking about Jews and gender worldwide.
Directed by Susan Eisenberg, the On Equal Terms Project uses personal testimony and the arts as springboards for education, discussion, and action about employment equity. Founded in 2007, the Project conducts research, develops local and national programming, and organizes national touring for the On Equal Terms installation.
Founded by WSRC Resident Scholar Liane Curtis, the Rebecca Clarke Society honors the life and work of composer and violist Rebecca Clarke (1886-1979). The society encourages and supports performances, recordings, publications, writings and scholarship concerning Clarke and her music.
The Schuster Institute for Investigative Journalism, the nation’s first independent reporting center based at a university, was launched in September 2004 by Florence George Graves. Seasoned journalists (including WSRC Resident Scholar E.J. Graff, who heads the Institute’s Gender & Justice Project) investigate suspected injustices — and then take results public, via mainstream and thought-leader publications, broadcasts and Web magazines.
The WAGE Project, Inc. is a nonprofit organization dedicated to ending wage discrimination against women in the American workplace in the near future. Its nickname, WAGE, is a nod to the goal the project pursues: Women Are Getting Even.
WAGE inspires and helps working women take the steps needed to ensure every woman is paid what she’s worth.
The WSRC Internship Program: Student-Scholar Partners (SSP), currently coordinated by Kristen Mullin, was launched in the spring of 1997 as a project of the Women’s Studies Program at Brandeis University. Today, the Program continues as an important component of the Women’s Studies Research Center (WSRC). This paid internship opportunity is designed to give undergraduate students a unique learning experience by allowing them to work side by side with a Scholar or faculty member in an interdisciplinary environment.
The Vision of the Center for Women in Government & Civil Society (CWGCS) is a world where women and men of all backgrounds participate equally in shaping the future.
CWGCS seeks to deepen and broaden political access and economic opportunities for women by strengthening the capacity of government, nonprofit and business sectors to implement gender-responsive, inclusive and equitable policies, practices and services
The Entrepreneurship Option for Low-Income Teenage Girls
CWIG is currently working on a proposal to start a research-based entrepreneurship program for low-income girls who are at risk for not completing high school. Research will target African-American and Latina women who are entrepreneurs, as well as take into account the perspectives of female entrepreneurs from all backgrounds. Project participants will join researchers at the college level in all levels of curriculum development and research phases. This project is being conducted with the Liberty Partnership Project.
Nonprofit Education Initiative
The Nonprofit Education Initiative (NEI) is a four-year collaborative undertaking that involves nonprofits working on issues related to women, children, and families; regional voluntary sector leaders; and government policymakers and business representatives. The NEI will advance collaborative learning among nonprofit leaders and managers and strengthen the capacities and leadership of diverse voluntary sector organizations. The goals of the initiative are to strengthen collaboration among statewide associations; build stronger connections between nonprofits and the communities and universities they serve; increase the competencies and capacities of statewide nonprofits; and strengthen the technological capacity and competence of consortium members.
Completing the Public Record: Appointed Policy Makers in State Government
CWIG is conducting work on demographic data on top-ranking gubernatorial appointees. In related research, the center is also studying policy priorities and influences on agenda-setting by the executive branch department heads. Both quantitative and interview data will be used to analyze 35 women and men bureaucratic leaders in eight states. Nontraditional Employment for Women study.
Liberty Partnership Project
A prevention program aimed at young women and men in grades 7-12 who are at risk for leaving school before graduation. The project offers a range of services to support people in obtaining their diploma, entering higher education, and preparing themselves for the workforce. The program is designed to address academic, personal, and social growth through a focus on the following: educational achievement; self-empowerment; workforce preparation and career exploration; and public policy leadership development.
The Fellowship experience blends theory with practice through direct policy field placement, academic coursework, professional development sessions, conferences, and community service activities. Fellows are provided with opportunities to gain specific skills and develop an extensive network of people working in their subject area as well as related professional arenas. The program runs annually from mid-January through the end of June. Participants are selected on a competitive basis based on academic achievement and work / life experience.
A highly intensive program, Fellows are required to work thirty hours each week at their placement office, Monday -Thursday. In addition, the program includes: 3 graduate courses (Tuesday and Thursday evening and one independent research) and professional development every Friday throughout the course of the Fellowship. Fellows receive a $10,000 stipend, tuition waivers and receive nine graduate credits from the Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy, University at Albany, SUNY.